How do GSM interceptors work and its types!

In today’s time, cellular Interceptions & cellular monitoring technologies indeed provide LEAs and Government Agencies with a technological edge. It is via cellular interception, that users can attain Communications Intelligence (COMINT) which aids various authorities to secure, investigate, and control intercepted wireless communications like voice and data.

Hence, in the battle against terrorism and criminal activities, a real-time GSM interception system was created to offer world-wide government and law enforcement societies with the most valuable spectrum interrogation tool. Today, several Law Enforcement surveillance users go for the updated GSM Interception Systems with communication control and forensic attributes.

What is a GSM Interceptor & how does it work?

A GSM interceptor is an equipment that can collect information from hundreds of phones across targeted vicinities and can intercept conversations and messages & execute ‘denial-of-service’ attacks on phones. Hence, a GSM Interception system works by breaking the GSM encryption algorithm during real-time communications that secure cellular phones on a GSM cellular service network.

Knowing the types of GSM Interception Systems via Stratign!

a) Stratign’s Active GSM Interception System

The evolution of GSM technology along with augmented technological attributes and heightened complexity presents Stratign with a competitive environment to fabricate and construct solutions to provide a complete ‘Off-The-AIR Communication Surveillance System’ to diverse Government and Intelligence-Gathering clients. The Semi-Active GSM Interception System has a universal operating capability. This system can be utilized to intercept communications globally, from any GSM service-providers, irrespective of the type of encryption being exercised. In the active mode, the system imitates the cell-phone tower making it to act as a genuine unit and influences the target’s mobile phone to register with it.

Product Features:

    • Capable of Interception and logging of all GSM, 3G and 4G Bands.
    • Configurable number of channels starting from 04 channels to 16/32 channels
    • Interception of GSM communications in real-time: Encrypted in A5/1 and A5/2 Ciphering algorithms.
    • Automatic tuning of the Receivers: Holds a possibility to scan and recognize control channels & communication system boundaries.
    • The System does not necessitate the service provider’s SIM for operation.
    • The system can monitor all communications of the target (Voice, CRI, Location) till the time it is within the coverage range.

b) Stratign’s Passive GSM Interception System

The Passive GSM Interception System from Stratign is a ‘multi-channel tunable’ GSM Monitoring system. Each receiver is self-reliantly connective & tunable to any BTS of the GSM Network. This system from Stratign is meant to guarantee interception and deciphering of audio conversation from standards such as GSM-850/900/1800/1900MHz Cellular network in a static or in a mobile-environment. The Passive systems can be easily integrated with an active 3G/4G unit to downgrade the communication to 2G for interception of 3G and 4G networks too.

Product features:

    • A configurable number of channels starting from 04 channels to 16/32 channels.
    • Automatically identifies, decodes the ciphering algorithms utilized on the network in real-time. It also records mobile phone conversations,
       call-related data & network-information to the hard-disk of the system.
    • Ability to scan GSM network parameters in the restrained area (Service Provider, Broadcast Channel Number, Cell IDs, Signal Levels).
    • Possibility of full-time operation in an auto mode without any involvement from the operator.

c) Stratign’s Hybrid GSM Interception System

The Hybrid GSM Interception system from Stratign is a combination of Passive and Active subsystems. Both the passive element and the active element of the system can work in synchronization. The passive component can be utilized to investigate missions, while the active component can be utilized to support the target-based interception. This makes the system more discrete and difficult to detect.

Product features:

    • The passive system can operate on all the four GSM bands: 850/900/1800/1900MHz
    • System’s ability to integrate with active 3G and 4G Nodes
    • Configurable number of channels starting from 04 channels to 16/32 channels

In conclusion, Stratign’s GSM Monitoring solutions are wholly integrated, compliant and portable systems which can be conveniently moved and implemented for critical mission-based circumstances. These GSM Monitoring systems offered by Stratign can be customized to fit in your existing vehicle or vehicle of your choice to intercept the target while moving.

Types of RCIED Jammers (Active or Reactive) and how do they work.

Whether for military or civilian purposes, protecting soldiers and VIP convoys from the threat of roadside bombs, or RCIEDs has remarkably become a high-priority and a strategic challenge. Stratign is proud to provide a valuable range of RCIED jammers, supplied in specially customized vehicles, Portable Briefcase, Man-Pack as wells as Static versions.

Before approaching towards the types of RCEID Jammers from Stratign, let’s get to know what RCIED Jammers are!

What are RCIED Jammers?

A Remote Controlled Improvised Explosive Device (RCIED) has become a more common hazard and requires a reliable deterrent. Utilizing RCIED bombs or explosive tools can be exploded by a ‘radio frequency-based remote control’. These are proving to be an increasing threat as terrorists become more technically experienced.

Challenges of RCIED Jamming

a) Signal Strength: In general, Jamming is a fight with respect to signal strength. The more powerful the communication signal is, the more powerful the Jammer must be on this threat frequency to be effective. Due to the path loss of RF signals in the air, providing a “large” jamming range requires much more power as compared to providing a “short” jamming range. When the transmitter and receiver are far away from each other, a minimum of Jamming signal strength is required; whereas a lot of jamming power is required when the transmitter and receiver are close to each other.

b) Inoperability of radio, cellular, or satellite communications: When jamming RCIEDs, it does not allow the possibility to call anyone for help using a wireless radio or phone during an ambush while driving, guarding a checkpoint, border etc. RF Jammers are fabricated to obstruct all communications. However, there are certain RF Jammers that are accessible with communication ‘window-gaps’ or an opening amidst the attack of jamming hindrance. Moreover, a few of these ‘windows’ allow 1-way & 2-way communication to take place.

c) Protecting communication: Preventing jammers from interfering with friendly radio communications is an important task. The simple fixed-frequency filters added to broadband jammers leave behind a selected narrow-frequency range, unjammed. The problem with those is that they are very bulky, and they also only work on a fixed frequency band, so you are limiting your radio’s capabilities by only operating on a very narrow band.

d) Short reaction timeframe: The time of reaction required for responsive RCIED jamming is extremely short. Basically, the entire process from spectrum observation and evaluation to jamming signal initiation, involving all delays instigated by the analog frontend & the digitized signal processing section; is carried out within a time frame that is very short compared with the transmission time of potential threat signals.

Active Jamming VS. Reactive Jamming

The two most extensively utilized jamming methods against RCIED activation are reactive & active jamming.

In the case of Active Jamming, the jammer releases electro-magnetic waves in pre-fixed frequency bands continuously, anticipating that these chosen bands incorporate those utilized by the RCIEDs implanted in the area.

While, with Reactive Jamming, the jammer first scans the entire frequency spectrum to detect radio signals before allocating its jamming power to the detected frequency bands.

The advantage of reactive jamming is associated with the lower stage of emission power as the jamming signal is produced only when an RCIED activation message is identified under one intercepted channel. It is necessary to detect activation signal appearance and its frequency, i.e. channel which must be jammed. Reactive jamming consumes approx. 40% to 50% less energy from batteries and alternator, thus, the system operation time gets enhanced. In addition, the radiation affecting to human health is drastically reduced and it generates less heat due to higher efficiency of Power amplifiers and duty cycle.

On the flipside, active jamming deduces continuous jamming signal transmission, independent on the existence of activation signal. However, the cost of this flexibility in Reactive Jamming is that the device cannot always jam all threat encountered if in a densely populated electromagnetic environment and considering that the jammer first listens and then acts, it is possible that it is too late to act on the same. However, manufacturers of reactive jammers claim that they can detect and neutralize innumerable threats simultaneously with the use of multiple RF front ends and signal generators. Their response time is in a few microseconds and can be effective on any type of communication means. On the contrary, Active Jamming does not have these problems.

Why go for Stratign’s RCIED Jammers?

The RCIED Jammers from Stratign are fabricated to neutralize the ignition of the explosive by obstructing the radio transmission that the bomber inducts to trigger the bomb. It does this by radiating a jamming signal that obliterates the desired command signals for the RCIED

Stratign offers various configurations of RCIED Jammers (active & reactive) to suit various operational requirements of the customers.

Types of RCIED Jammers from Stratign and its functionality!

a) Vehicle Mounted RCIED Jammers/ Convoy Jamming System:

Stratign’s High-Power DDS Technology-based Convoy Jamming System utilizes the most effective & reliable RF jamming technology and is granted with a well-assimilated broadband jamming system. The ‘vehicle-mounted’ RCIED Jammer is usually utilized for convoy defense or protection of assigned area for military/police deployment at substantial public gatherings, riots, anti-government protests, etc. This device is installed inside the vehicle. The customer may choose any Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) like Toyota Land Cruiser. The system is powered by a dedicated power supply integrated within the vehicle. The system features an integrated forced air-cooling system which ensures uninterrupted operation in any climate. A set of high-gain, omni-directional antenna is mounted on the roof of the vehicle. System management, involving stimulation, operation & band control, is performed utilizing a remote-control unit mounted within the vehicle.

b) Portable Briefcase RCIED Jammers:

Stratign’s Portable RCIED jammer is built into a briefcase and designed to defend against radio-controlled improvised explosive devices. Basically, this Jammer acts as a mobile transmitting station to cover the locality & protect it against remote-controlled bombs (mainly utilized in ambush or street crime attacks).

The jammer is constructed to function as a portable system transportable from vehicle to home, office, operational field & more. In case of portable operation, the jammer is powered by an internal rechargeable battery with an autonomous operation capability of up to 1 hour.

When it comes to vehicular operation, the jammer is driven by an exclusive supply that can be supplied optionally. Stratign’s Portable Briefcase Jamming System gives the user the edge against radio-controlled weapons.

c) Man-Pack RCIED Jammers:

Stratign’s Man-pack jammer is a portable bomb jammer built into backpack configuration. The Man-Pack jammer is a lightweight portable system used to protect military, law enforcement personnel in areas which could harbor potential radio-detonated IED threats and EOD personnel who are involved in diffusing these IEDs. It is used for jamming RCIED’s to protect people on the move during a column march. The equipment is especially useful for protection against radio-controlled land mines.

Based on the customers’ requirement, the jammer can be factory configured to operate in a frequency band of 20MHz – 3600 GHz. The power output of the jammer can also be factory configured from 50W up to 680W.

Overall, Stratign’s RCIED Jammers are engineered and built to provide continuous electronic protection against RCIEDs in the most rugged, tactical and extreme environments.

What does a drone jammer do and subsystems of a drone jammer!

These days, security forces across the world have been facing a growing threat: Radio-controlled drones, flying or hovering over-crowded stadiums, prisons and places with great concentration of people. The drones have the capability of spying, documenting and broadcasting unauthorized videos. They can also transport explosives, illegal commodities and other products; and even commit terrorist attacks, assassination of VIP and more.

As a result of these threats, a Drone Jammer or Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) jammer was developed. The drone jammer designed for military use can block small to medium-sized drone in multiple ways.

How does a drone jammer work?

In simple words, a Drone Jammer is a machine formulated to send electro-magnetic noise at radio frequencies with the objective of superseding the same radio & GPS signals your drone utilizes to operate. Largely, there is either a 2.4GHz or a 5.8GHz one, which are usually “not-assigned” public frequencies, which mean that drone jammers will not interfere with any aircraft, cell phones, public broadcasts, or any other committed radio bands.

They function by radiating the jammer signal in the form of a cone of approximately 15-30 degrees using a directional antenna or 360 degrees using omni-directional antenna. Moreover, when a jammer’s signal hits the drone, the most common response for the drone is to return to its point of origin (Unless the GPS is jammed as well), providing the jammer operator with the choice to trail the drone back to the pilot. Otherwise, a drone jammer may lead the drone to land on-the-spot in order to run a forensic investigation.

Let’s know the subsystems of a drone jammer!

The integrated anti-drone jammer system consists of the following subsystems:

a) Radar: This device uses radio energy for detecting drones. The radar emits signals-out and evaluates its reflection, determining the distance (for the position) and direction. The Radar can detect even high-speed miniature drones of up to 0.01 sqm Radar Cross Section. It works in ISM, X, S Frequency Bands with an instant bandwidth of 50 MHz or more. The maximum detection range depends on the frequency band used and the size of the drone.

b) Thermal (EO/IR) Cameras: Thermal detection can be a helpful tool for finding drone in a remote region. The identification is done using a high-performance Thermal Camera. Since optical cameras may not be able to identify miniature drones flying at high speed, a thermal camera is also used. The thermal cameras can either be cooled or uncooled and have different ranges based on the wavelength of IR being used. Moreover, multiple lens options ranging from 7mm up to 60mm for having different views of the field can be opted as well.

c) Direction-finding RF Sensors: An RF Sensor works by discovering radio-links between a drone and remote-control station, detecting radio frequency (RF) signs of Wi-Fi signals. The RF sensor spots a targeted radio signal, recognizes it and proceeds with neutralization of undesirable UAV. By utilizing several RF Sensors, the drone operator could also be localized, where drone swarms can be tracked and mapped in real-time. Some RF sensors are now having direction-finding antennas integrated into them so that the drones can be localized and shown on the integrated digital maps with the drone defense system.

d) Acoustic Detection: Due to their varied construction, each drone creates unique sounds, and these can be sensed by using acoustic sensors. Acoustic sensors are made up of an array of microphones that can detect sounds produced by drones and calculate direction. These sensors do not require any direct line of sight to the object in order to work correctly.

e) RF Jammers: As a soft-kill method, RF jammers utilized against control & navigation signals, neutralize drone threats in the defense systems. By transmitting stronger jamming signals, the RF remote control and navigation signals are blocked, and drones become uncontrollable by the user. With the help of the radar and/or other tracking sensors in the system, jammer transmits in the direction of the threats and they are left unfunctional for their intended mission and they either fall or land on the ground.

Stratign’s drone jammer system

Overall, Stratign believes that an all-embracing Drone Jamming solution is one which is cost-effective & customized.

To counter the UAV threat, Stratign’s approach is based on a 4-step workflow:

    a) DETECT the potential threat with the finest possible probability of detection using Radar and RF detection.
    b) LOCATE the drone on a digitized map.
   c) IDENTIFY the potential threat as an authentic threat with the least possible false-alarm rate using the EO/IR Camera and specialized proprietary          algorithms.
    d) ACT on the threat by raising alarms or combatting the threat with a countermeasure using RF jammers.

Advantageous Features of Stratign’s Drone Jammer:

   • The system can Detect, Locate, Identify, Disrupt UAVs navigation system and data links up to 1000 mt. The range can be extended up to 3-5 km         based on the requirement and size of the drone.
    • An active solution capable of handling most of the commercial drones.
    • An integrated RF sensor and jammer solution for instantaneous action on detection of drones.
    • The capability of locating direction and position of drone using multiple RF sensors in tandem.
    • Multiple systems can be used to cover larger vulnerable areas close to public places where civilian access is easy.

In a nutshell, apart from its precise usage in the military field, this well-working ‘Drone Jammer’ from Stratign can determine its application in the prevention of criminal operations. It can also be valuable for those police forces engaged in supervising certain risk areas.

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) – What is it?

GNSS stands for Global Navigation Satellite System and is an umbrella term that encompasses all global satellite positioning systems. This includes constellations of satellites orbiting over the earth’s surface and continuously transmitting signals that enable users to determine their position. The four major global GNSS systems are – GPS (US), GLONASS (Russia), Galileo (EU), BeiDou (China). In addition, there are many regional navigation systems which are being developed by various countries.

These systems give essential capabilities to civil, military, and commercial users all over the world. These signals are liberally available to anyone with a GNSS receiver. Be it a mobile phone, handheld GPS unit or SatNav, it can sense and obtain the radio signals that these satellites broadcast.

How it works?

When a GNSS is tracked, it implies to be a method of identifying where exactly an element is situated. A GPS tracking system, for example, can be placed on a cell phone, in a vehicle, or on distinct GPS devices, which can either be a stationary or portable unit. Hence, it can also trace the movement of a person or vehicle. So, for instance, a GPS tracking system can be utilized by a company to oversee the route and movement of a delivery truck, or even to monitor & observe high-valued assets in transit.

The GNSS network integrates an array of satellites that utilize microwave signals that are transmitted to GPS devices to provide information on location, speed of the vehicle, direction & time. Basically, a tracking system can possibly provide both historic and real-time data on any kind of journey.
While GNSS satellites vary in age and design, their principal operation remains the same. The satellites transmit two carrier waves in the L-Band referred to as L1 and L2. The carrier waves transmit information from the satellite to the earth.

Most GNSS receivers have two parts — antenna and processing unit. The antenna receives satellite signals while the processing unit makes sense of it. To determine the position of the receiver it needs to collect information from a minimum of three satellites.

Use of GPS from a military perspective!

Global Positioning System (GPS) is one such technology, where the emergence of the space age has led to the advancement of several technologies, discovering its extensive purpose both in military and civilian fields. Military forces, all over the world are utilizing GPS for diverse applications, both throughout wartime and peacetime. These comprise navigation, targeting, rescue, guidance, & facility management. For instance, with war clouds approaching over a certain area like Asia, the US led forces have always portrayed to use weapon systems, which profoundly rely on GPS for their lethality and accuracy.

GNSS helps track or guide GNSS enabled devices such as vehicles, military systems, UAVs, missiles, etc. It can facilitate civil protection operations in harsh environments, speed up rescue operations and help coastguard and border control authorities in navigation through unknown territories. Success of new age security operations depend upon the ability to navigate correctly to the target locations. However, GNSS can also be used by subversive elements to navigate UAVs to deliver explosives or to take photographs of restricted/protected areas or to control guided missiles. This necessitates the need of jamming the GNSS signals to protect important installations and to disorient the advancing forces.

Stratign’s GNSS Jammers

Stratign’s GNSS Jammer is created to jam all the four major GNSS navigational systems by emitting interference signals. These Jammers release barrage radio-jamming and renders the navigation services inefficient or force them to exhibit undesirable error in their accuracies. Stratign’s GNSS jammers are utilized for protecting the area against satellite-navigated hostile threats. It will essentially protect a well-defined zone, both from the ground and the sky threats while it will not, in any way, impact the normal operations of navigation services on the exterior-side of this area.

Stratign’s system has been designed and developed to address all types of GNSS which are in use currently and it can jam all commercial signals of the navigation systems. Being modular in construction allows flexibility of use to the customer, i.e. they can either jam all signals simultaneously or only desired GNSS signals.

Stratign’s GNSS jammer is designed to overcome modern anti-jamming measures in current Satellite Receiver chipsets widely used in drones (quadcopters/multi-copters), light UAVs, suicide UAVs and other non-expensive “high precision” weapon’s navigation systems. The modern chipsets are multisystem: two systems (GPS+GLONASS or GPS+COMPASS) or three systems (GPS+GLONASS+GALILEO or GPS+GLONASS+ COMPASS).

Stratign’s STN GNSSJ is highly modular in nature and consists of three parts–Signal Generation Unit, Output amplifier Unit and Antennas. The modular nature makes the jammers very adaptable to requirements of different end users.

Let us uncover it’s advantages!

   • Designed to operate for all Satellite Navigation Systems available today or in future: GPS, GPS III, GALILEO and GLONASS and COMPASS.
   • System can be upgraded to operate for Regional Navigation Satellite Systems.
   • Capable for jamming military grade GPS signals: ranging from 10KM to 150 KM
   • Capable for jamming civilian GPS signals: ranging from 30KM to 350KM

Therefore, Stratign has a very wide range of GNSS jammer configurations which can provide the required type of protection for both static locations as well as any moving requirements. The type of jammers and their usage can be customized according to customer’s needs and deployment foreseen. For example, Stratign’s STN GNSSJ is highly modular in nature and consists of three parts (Signal Generation Unit, Output amplifier Unit and Antennas). The modular nature makes the jammers very adaptable to requirements of different end users.